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How to use a shift lens on your camera

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How to use a shift lens

What they do and why they are so useful

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Normally you change the view of your camera by pointing it in a different direction. Using a shift lens (usually just the shift part of a tilt/shift lens) lets you point your camera and then adjust the lens to change the view.

Keith Cooper uses such lenses a lot and has written many detailed reviews – this guide looks just at lens shift, how you set it and what effects it gives you.

Most of the lenses in our reviews look at tilt/shift lenses, which offer a second lens movement (tilt), we’ll ignore this here, as Keith does in 98% of his architectural photography.

He’s written some other guides that may be of interest:
What’s a tilt/shift lens do | Using tilt on your DSLR


Smith tower, Seattle (TS-E17mm F4L)
Using a shift lens to avoid converging verticals.

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Using lens shift (perspective control)

The examples here are mostly using some of the Canon TS-E lenses on a Canon DSLR. You can use these lenses on mirrorless cameras with adapters. Nikon produce some tilt/shift lenses, although they use the term ‘Perspective control’. Samyang and Laowa also produce shift lenses, and I’ve used Mamiya 645 medium format lenses on my Canon DSLRs with a simple adapter.

What’s a shift lens?

This example shows a Mamiya lens attached to my Canon camera with an adapter.

The adapter lets me shift the lens (upwards in this case).

55mm lens shifted upwards for rise

Look carefully at the adapter and you’ll see a scale marked in millimetres, and a knob below. This is what lets me shift the lens -upwards by about 10mm in this case.

This second example shows a lens mount end of a Canon TS-E17mm at its full 12mm shift.

shift mechanism

All the adapters and lenses allow you to shift the lens by some amount, in any direction you like.

That’s up/down, left/right or at some arbitrary diagonal angle.

I’ll show some other lenses I’ve looked at, at the end of the article, if you’re curious about their features.

First though, what’s the problem they solve? Why might you choose to use one?

Problems with just pointing your camera up

The basic problem is ‘convergence of verticals’

This short clip shows what happens when you tilt a camera upwards – note the way that vertical lines lean in towards the middle.

The lens here is a 24mm focal length (all shots here are on a full frame camera unless mentioned)

With shorter focal lengths, the effect is even more noticeable, such as this shot at 14mm

leaning buildings 14mm

Whilst a few shots like this can look suitably ‘dynamic’, I know that my architectural and construction company clients won’t want many of them…

It’s not just buildings. You can see how by pointing the camera upwards I’ve lowered the horizon in the frame. Great for skies, but as this 14mm shot from Colorado shows, not so much for fence posts, trees or other things on the ground. [Click to enlarge – most images here can be viewed larger]

Big Sky in South Park

In fact, when processing this image (South Park in Colorado) a few years ago, I even cropped off a bit of the frame at the bottom to make it a little less obvious.

I’ll come back to ‘fixing’ this in software in a bit, but in the meantime, here’s my number one use for shift lenses.

Shifting upwards to fix verticals

The process is very simple.

  • Set your camera level on a tripod, pointing towards your subject.
  • Check your camera settings – all such lenses I’ve seen are manual focus, some are manual aperture too.
  • Check your exposure – shifting the lens can mess with camera metering, so I use manual exposure, and measure with the lens unshifted.
  • Adjust the shift setting to frame the shot as you want it.
  • Take your photo.
  • Maybe take another shot at a different shift setting, if you were thinking of stitching (see later).

Here’s the photo, with the camera initially levelled. Too much foreground and not enough sky (unless I’m photographing some of the landscaping works).


This short video clip starts with a level camera. The lens is shifted upwards to frame the shot.

It’s really that simple. Here’s the photo with the lens shifted up.


Here’s a rather more extreme example taken with the TS-E17mm

VJP 17mm rectified view

With practice I’ve done this hand-held – such as this time at Wells cathedral (TS-E17mm).

Sea of steps at Wells cathedral

Sea of steps at Wells cathedral, after FH Evans

I’ll come back to some more uses of shift, but you may be wondering how shifting the lens does this for you?

The image circle – how the magic works

Shift lenses work because the image they project behind them, onto your film or sensor, is much larger than needed to cover the area of the sensor.

This diagram shows the idea.

image circle and sensor

BTW, the image is upside down, because that’s what lenses do when projecting an image.

If you’ve never tried it, get a magnifying glass (or camera lens) and project the image of a window onto your hand or a sheet of paper. It’s inverted, so left-right reversed as well as upside down.

I’ve turned it round in the following examples to make things a bit clearer – the image in your camera is the other way up.

The unshifted lens, with the camera level gives the view you would expect.

no shift

The effect of shifting the lens upwards, with the camera unmoved, is to capture a different part of the image circle within the frame.

shift up

If you’re wondering about cameras with different sensor sizes, just imagine a smaller rectangle.

Still unsure? – get the magnifying glass or lens to project onto a piece of paper with a small rectangle drawn on it. Move the lens up and down to see how the part of the image filling the rectangle changes.

This short clip shows me holding a Canon 50mm lens to project the image of a window frame onto the card.

A normal lens has an image circle that only just reaches past the corners of the sensor.

This diagram (from Canon) shows the image circles of their lenses.

tse image circles

Note how the small sensor can work with a smaller image circle.

This is one reason you can’t use most crop sensor lenses on full frame cameras – they have smaller image circles – which does though make for smaller and lighter (and cheaper) lenses.

Shifting downwards

You can shift the lens downwards if needed to avoid tilting the camera down.

This example (from my TS-E90mm review) is shifted downwards a bit to keep verticals straight.

untilted F2.8

I’d note that it’s also taken at f/2.8 – one of the reasons that I’d say the TS-E90mm F2.8L Macro is one of the best quality lenses I’ve ever tested.

Shifting a tilted camera

What happens if you tilt the camera first and then add shift?

This short clip does just that.

So, we can get leaning verticals without looking upwards.

There’s another use for tilting the camera first, and that’s to match the lean of the face of a building towards or away from you. This diagram shows how you match the plane of your camera sensor with the plane you are photographing, and then use shift to get the view you want.

sloping face

It’s not a setup I’ve ever come across a need for.

In fact it’s just the same as levelling the camera in the case of the slope of the building face being zero – or vertical, as with most buildings.

Back to a level camera

Here’s the view square on to the doors.


The curvature of the floor blocks is not lens distortion, the surface slopes and is not flat.

Note too the reflection of myself and my friend Olly (another local photographer here in Leicester – one to whom I direct any portrait enquiries we get).

Shooting reflective surfaces can be an issue with my kit appearing in the shot – Photoshop is one answer, but I can also move to change the reflection in the windows.

Moving sideways

I’ve moved right to change the reflected view, and get me out of the reflection.

I’ve left my camera bag on the wall showing where we were standing.


Obviously, the doorway is no longer central to the frame.

I’ve two choices – pan the camera left or shift the lens.

Shift to the left

By shifting I keep the horizontal lines level. You could think of sideways shift as a way of dealing with converging horizontal lines, but be aware that our perceptions of leaning verticals and non level horizontal lines are quite different.


Sideways shift can also be thought of pointing the lens at your subject and the shifting left or right to move this subject away from the centre of the frame.

Look at this example (TS-E17) where I wanted the view into the room beyond, but didn’t want the wall/window that was right next to me.

sideways shift

With a lot of shift, you need to take care that the image projection geometry doesn’t look a bit ‘wrong’. We’re very good at spotting such things, even if most people couldn’t tell you what’s actually different about the image.

Often a small amount of shift is all you need to fix unwanted reflections – like many effects, if you can see it, then you might want to question what it is you want to show in an image.

Diagonal shift

I’ve looked at shift up/down/left/right, but what if you want to combine a bit of upwards shift, with a bit of sideways shift?

Well, you can, since most shift lenses let you set the shift axis at any arbitrary angle.

Take this view of some stairs


Let’s say I wanted to reduce the emphasis of the ceiling. I could shift downwards.

If I also wanted to show the display cases at the left and still keep my view down the stairs, I could shift down and to the left.


I’ve exaggerated it here to show the effect, but it’s worth experimenting with.  I don’t often use very strong sideways shift, but a small amount can work well, without being too obvious.

There is a short article specifically devoted to using diagonal shift as an aid to composition.

Why not fix this in software?

Right from the start I’m hearing some people scoff that you don’t need such lenses and that Photoshop (etc.) is all you really need.

In a way that’s true since I could just shoot with an extra wide lens and level camera and crop out what I want.

Take this 14mm shot from the same place I showed earlier.

14mm with level camera

It’s a 50MP image, so this crop is still over 4000px wide.


Indeed, if you are shooting just for web use, have enough megapixels to start with and have a good enough lens (Canon EF11-24 F4L in this case) then there is nothing wrong with this approach.

Another approach is to just correct any leaning verticals after you’ve taken the shot.

My personal software choice for this is DxO Viewpoint, used as a plugin in Photoshop. (I’ve a detailed review of Viewpoint 3)

Any significant change of image geometry will affect the quality of your image to some extent, but more importantly, any significant ‘fix’ for verticals means you end up with a trapezoidal image, which then needs cropping.

Cropping means you lose stuff from the edges – this can be difficult to predict when looking in the viewfinder.

I’ve quite a few articles that explore aspects of wide angle lens use, and software correction.

There is one software fix that I’m quite happy with and that’s dealing with chromatic aberration and colour fringing (only really an issue with older/cheaper lenses).

Modern RAW processing software handles this well for unshifted lenses, but with no shift lenses recording the amount of shift in image EXIF data, most automated fixes fail to varying degrees.

Lens aberration correction becomes more difficult with shifted lenses. Raw processing software in general just can’t handle this aspect of processing an off centre optical axis where the middle of the image circle not in the centre of the frame.

There are ways of dealing with this I’ve covered in reviews of lenses with more obvious distortions (TS-E45 / Samyang TS24 / Laowa 15mm) but it’s extra work.

Personally, my commercial photography benefits from ‘more megapixels’ in my images, even if supplied at a reduced size for some clients.

Looking for more resolution from my old 21MP Canon 1Ds mk3 was one reason I started looking at image stitching.


Sometimes I want a wider view than a particular lens gives me. Or, I might want a square image, without the need to crop my 3:2 aspect ratio source image and lose resolution.

With modern software and a shift lens it’s easy to set the camera up, take a photo, shift the lens and then take another, then stitch them together.

I tend to do up/down stitches, but you can just as easily do left/right stitching, for panoramic shots for example.

You get a wider coverage, as well as megapixels – important when I’m looking at making a big print.

Going back to my image circle example, you’re just capturing more of it.

stitching example

There are a few things to take note of if you’re doing this.

Shift lenses can by their design, introduce an additional bit of vignetting on the opposite side to where you are shifting, at wider apertures. This is in addition to the normal lens vignetting I’ve showed in the example above. I go more into this in some of my newer TS-E lens reviews, but effectively you want to work at smaller apertures (I use f/7.1 – 9 for modest shifts.

At extremes of shift, you are getting into the lower image quality you find at the edge of the image circle, this can be alleviated to some extent by moving to ~f/11 or even a bit higher.  If I’m shooting a building or landscape with sky in it, then the lowest quality areas fall into parts of the sky, so are less of a bother. If I’m shooting just the facade of a building, I need to be a lot more careful about the corners in the direction of shift.

With the camera on a tripod, your viewpoint changes slightly as you shift the lens. If you’ve got crossing near/far elements in your image, then stitching may well show up parallax errors from this movement. One solution for this is to mount the lens to the tripod and shift the camera up/down.

Here’s my TS-E17mm lens mounted in a TSE Frame [review]. You can see the knob at the side of the lens that lets me shift the camera down/up (reversing the lens movements).

tse frame right

With a simple two shot stitch, I can create ~80MP square images from my 5Ds – that’s good for metre square prints.

You can of course shift in multiple directions and create even bigger images, but watch for image quality falloff in the corners.

A few examples of stitched images.

This dusk view shot with the TS-E24.

dmu vjp at dusk

Be careful to use exactly the same settings for each shot (including white balance when processing the images).

vjp entrance

The other entrance to the VJP Design Wing at De Montfort university in Leicester (TS-E24). It’s near where I live, so one of my go-to places for testing lenses.

whitby harbour pier

The harbour pier at Whitby – a hand held 80MP shot (TS-E17).

Below, using the TS-E45mm

boat and DMU

I took the top shot here and then waited for the rowers to get into position. If I’d had a tripod with me I might have done it the other way round.

Next, the Dock business centre in Leicester (TS-E17).

Dock exterior

Don’t let the wider angle and higher MP capabilities make you forget that good light and composition matters.  The wider views exacerbate any slight levelling errors too.

With the wider views (TS-E17) you can really push the angular look…

St George's tower

I generally prefer just my verticals vertical, but sometimes a flat on geometric look works (TS-E17).

LCB depot, Leicester

Just one ‘warning’ – once you start using shift very much, your acceptance of leaning building/trees etc will plummet. That’s fine for me as an architectural and commercial photographer but I’d note that it can then take quite a deliberate process to decide that in some photos it probably doesn’t matter…

Some shift lenses explored

All of my related reviews and articles are in the ‘Tilt/Shift‘ listing category on this site – there are quite a few.

Here are some of the lenses I’ve looked at:

My personal favourite, the Canon TS-E17mm F4L

set tilt axis

Whilst I use the Canon TS-E lenses for my work, I’ve tested some other makes that support a range of camera lens mounts as well as the Canon EF versions I tested.

I’ve a review of the Samyang T-S 24mm f/3.5 ED AS UMC

Samyang tilt-shift

Another lens available in a variety of mounts, the Venus LAOWA 15mm f/4 Wide Angle Macro shift lens

Very wide and a close focus point just centimetres from the front element.

venus-15mm F4 shifted

With an adapter you can add shift movement to all kinds of lenses. Laowa have their own interesting adapter to mount many of their lenses to Sony FE mount.

I used an adapter I found (from eBay) to mount Mamiya 645 medium format lenses to my Canon cameras.

The example below gives me a 35mm shift lens.


See also my newer Mamiya M645 lenses and the FotoDiox tilt/shift adapter review.

Here’s the Canon TS-E90mm F2.8L Macro mounted on the excellent GD3WH geared tripod head – ideal for setting up and adjusting shift lenses.

head and camera

And here’s the specialist Rogeti RG-1 geared head – even easier to use. [RG-1 review]

Note the vertically shifted view on the screen.Focus peaking (red) on the screen makes for very effective manual focusing.

35mm f/3.5 on RG-1

Lastly, a home made 5×4 adapter (or 4×5 for those of you in the US)

One reason I made it was to learn all about camera movements.

Canon view camera

The Canon view camera

I hope this article has been of help in explaining just why a lens that shifts can be so useful.

If you’ve any questions, please email me or use the comments below?

Images from the article

Larger versions of many of the example photos from the article.

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  • Keith | Apr 19, 2021 at 11:10 pm

    And I have a book about this too!

  • Mihai Toma | Apr 19, 2021 at 1:54 pm

    Thanks a lot for this clearly exemplified use of the lens movements! :) I looked high and low for such a tutorial to make everything clear regarding movements for my on-route LF film camera. This one did. :)

    All the best,
    Mihai Toma

  • thijs wolzak | Feb 15, 2021 at 1:25 pm

    I really appreciate your articles on T/S lenses, great resource for T/S knowledge!
    Yes, the ‘Additional Shift Vignetting’ as you mention it, is much more influential then I thought. One pro for mirrorless cameras! Of course, there is also the third kind of vignetting, which happens when I shift the lens all the way up in camera landscape position: There is a distinct gradient over the whole length of the image, appr 1-4 mm wide depending on aperture.
    And yes, I’m also very curious what the new lenses will bring, although I don’t like working with the mirrorless cameras. Wouldn’t it be great if they could record shifting data so it would become possible to automatically correct certain abberations!
    Best, Thijs

  • Keith | Feb 14, 2021 at 1:18 pm

    Yes – I’d forgot about the camera internals, as well as the lens internals causing shading.
    I’m looking forward to Canon’s next refresh of the wider T/S lenses for mirrorless even if it is likely to be far from cheap ;-)

  • thijs wolzak | Feb 14, 2021 at 12:19 pm

    I did some more tests and I think I have it figured out. As often, it was not one cause.
    First of all, the ‘shadow’ effect of the mirror box of the camera that affects the light falling onto the sensor is greater than I thought. I found that out by doing a finer bracket of shift movements, 1 mm apart. Then you can see the shadow changing shape and location. And I did the test with full lens opening, and with f.13 (which I use a lot for interiors). As you also note in your article, the fall off due to the mirror box blocking some light gets less at smaller apertures.
    The second cause is that I set Clarity at 30 as a standard setting in Adobe Camera Raw. This setting changes the value of pixels in relation of the pixels around them (in some way, and maybe even taking into account ALL other pixels in the image). Thus how the clarity setting will affect a certain part of the subject depends on the areas around it in the image. And when you shift, this changes per definition. Example: imagine a shot where you stand in a doorway, and the left of the photo is a dark room, and the right side of the photo is a bright room. In the middle is the door post. In a stitched image made up of three images, the door post will be in all three images, once on the right side of the image, once in the middle, and once on the left side of the image. Now when you apply Clarity, the doorpost will be affected in different ways, because of the adjacent areas in the image. And when superimposed, the three doorposts will not be the same.
    My solution will be not to use larger lens openings, to make more, overlapping images, and not to use Clarity until the shot is composed.
    Best regards, Thijs

  • Keith | Feb 14, 2021 at 12:05 pm

    Don’t forget the shift vignetting that can happen on the opposite side to normal lens vignetting at wider apertures.

    See here

  • thijs wolzak | Feb 14, 2021 at 11:04 am

    Hi Keith,
    I’ve been using TS-E lenses professionally for many years, and I use the Canon 24mm mkII for 95% of my work. And on 80% of my work I stitch. I’ve set up a method of compensating the parallax with L-shaped quick release plates. I also tried the TSE Frame, but I hate how the camera slowly drops due to gravity; I need to tighten the small knob every time which makes it too time-consuming.
    My question: When I stitch, there is always a slight difference in exposure between shots, so I have to correct them to make them match. This happens of course when shooting in daylight, which can fluctuate. But I also noticed it in stable light conditions, which made me perform a few tests to find out what causes it. I’ve rules out a few things, like shutter or aperture inconsistancies, but I haven’t found the cause yet. Have you ever encountered this?
    I’m using Canon 5DmkIII. Of course I am not referring to the fall- off occurring at extreme shift upwards (camera landscape). And I shoot raw, and I make sure all settings in Adobe Camera Raw are identical.
    As soon as I find out what causes it I will let you now.
    Best, Thijs

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